pod patronatem

WRO 09


11 nr12

panoptikum pierwsze


Zawartość tej strony wymaga nowszej wersji programu Adobe Flash Player.

Pobierz odtwarzacz Adobe Flash


>> opis numeru <<
>> spis treści <<

Jacques Ranciere
O sztukach mechanicznych oraz estetycznym i naukowym awansie anonimowych jednostek

This essay is a representative excerpt from Jacques Ranciere's book Le Partage du sensible. Esthetique et politique (eng. The Politics of Aesthetics: The Distribution of the Sensible) - one of the most significant books concerning relations between art and politics, in which Ranciere systematically and comprehensively formulates the basis of his aesthetic theory, from the definition of the main title notion, through account and analysis of the three main regimes of art, to the reflection on the relations between the artistic creation and labor (where he refers to young Marx). Taking into account the general profile of "Panoptikum" we decided to publish the fragment on mechanic arts.
The very title of the book is tour de force of translation - it summarizes the main idea of Ranciere's aesthetics, but it does not have the exact equivalent in Polish. The word partage comes from the verb partager which means "to share, to divide, to split". Social life and politics are shaped through demarcation and division, but is at the same time the division of what is shared. Partage is more of a process or action than a condition. It does not to correspond to any "natural", "normal" or found differences, boundaries or oppositions. The other part of the title - sensible - is even more troublesome. It comes from the word sense and there is no Polish word that would embrace all its meanings, ranging from physical faculties (as in the sense of sight) and analogous faculties of mind or spirit (as in a sense of humour) to meaning (as in the sense of a text). Again, we encounter the duality that mirrors author's intentions. Those fragments in the text in which to decide on one meaning or the other seems an impossible task, are precisely the moments of the authentic work of this discourse.

Halina Baczewska
Próba atlasu fizjonomicznego pewnej epoki. Ludzie XX wieku Augusta Sandera

August Sander (1876-1964) was a German photographer working in Cologne. In the early 20ties of the last century he came up with an original idea to create a work of art which in a form of an atlas would show all kinds of people, jobs and social groups of the Weimar
Republic. Initially the work entitled "The People of the XX the century" was to consist of 7 portfolios of portrait photographs, each devoted to one social class. However it was never to be published, nor finished by the author due to political circumstances of the Hitler
rule and the II World War. In my essay I wanted to describe the general concept behind Sander's work, inspirations both artistic and scientific in nature. I intend to look into the question of photography considered as a document and therefore believed to be the most objective means of representation. I inquire into the nature of portrait photography: if it is being a mere record of one's individual presence, or perhaps it is showing something more general, a "face of that time", or a "type" of a person, making reference to the images we carry in our minds? Finally I wanted to draw attention to Sander's skill and distinctive attentiveness that enabled him to take portraits that still capture our eyes and make us wonder about the past and people who lived in it.

Monika Kozień
Power(lessness) of record

One of the greatest human desires is the desire to actualize, as attested by centuries-old history of representation. In Western culture, based on mimesis, actualization has been strongly associated with an image designed to be the closest equivalent for the original. But can we really maintain that perfect mimetic techniques and dominance of attractive images guarantee access to truth?
Before the invention of photography, almost supernatural properties had been ascribed to illusionist painting. Photography and film were the next steps in perfecting the form of recording. With time, however, the objectivizing potential of photographic record has been viewed with deepening criticism, as proven by numerous attempts to minimize flaws of photography. One of those attempts has been the utopian concept of "total recording", employed e.g. by the Mass Observation group. As opposed to the abundance of information obtained in the "total recording", various artistic practices use the idea of emptiness, silence and nothingness, defying the role of the image or, more broadly, the role of eyesight in attaining truth. Such an ascetic approach may be found in works by Yves Klein, Bruce Nauman, Elżbieta Janicka, Paweł Althamer and Gustav Metzger.
As there is no time-machine to transport us to bygone reality, we may only try and discover the past with our sensitivity and, primarily, experience - our personal sense of reality.

Agnieszka Pindera

The Eye We Cannot Shut 

The relationship between photography and death dates back to the birth of the former. In About Looking John Berger asks about the consequences of publishing pictures of human suffering. Photography can surprise and shock us. The question is: How long will it continue to? Shock can also be familiar, because people have the ability to adapt quickly.
As Mathew Brady a photographer during the American Civil War (1861-65) used to say "Camera is the eye of history". The aim of his photos was to show the horror of war and its real face. But the truth was something else.
For photographers composition meant everything and they had no scruples about arranging images as they saw fit. Using photography for propaganda reasons and pictoral manipulations have a long tradition. At first the Nazis started using photography as propaganda, but then they noticed the danger of documentary materials. Photography can be consider an atypical history lesson, Geert van Kesteren gives us it in the Why Mister, Why? exhibition a report from his journey to Baghdad in April 2003. His photographs show reality how it is: often blurred and vague, sometimes ridiculous, often fearfully brutal. The Why Mister, Why? is a traveling exhibition, with multimedia projections which transfer online information from Iraq and an exhaustive publication. This is political history in practise. Van Kesteren and the exhibition producers take into consideration Iraq's contemporary history.
Berger wrote that "the camera frees us from the baggage memory. It observes us like a God, and observes for us. But no God wasn't so cynical, because the camera records thingd so we can forget them."

Rafał Grzenia

Identyfikacja w filmie dokumentalnym

The following paper consists of fragments from my master's thesis written  under the direction of Prof. Mirosław Przylipiak at Polish Philology department at University of Gdansk. The paper is an account of the 'projection-identification process' in relation to authorial subject in documentary film.
The first part of the paper is based on presumption that act of sight-perception constitutes documentary content. An important component of the act is the creation of an illusion of subjective perception. The illusion can be analysed through the use of projection-identification mechanism, adopted from fictional films (the ideas of Balazs and Morin are briefly summarized here). The adoption is based on a shift of the subject from identification from the film hero to the perceiving subject. A short comparison of the structure and mechanism of both genres aims to present the problems of differences in respective identification processes. An additional context is provided through an analysis of the role of camera in feature movie and of the transcendent subject.
The second part focuses upon the relation of the author with the figure of the subject.   Through a detailed analysis of the process of identification of the viewer with the figure of subject we are able to pose important questions concerning a possibility of lecture of a documentary that would be conscious and independent from the pressure of author-figure. We describe the techniques that enable the viewer to realize the ongoing identification processes and the reception techniques that enable the control of the process viewer's identification with the author-figure.

Bartosz Zając

Rodzinne transgresje Kazuo Hary

Extreme Private Eros: Love Song 1974 is a second documentary in the filmography of Kazuo Hara, artist regarded as a pioneer of a "private film" (kojin eiga). At first alone, later with his lover and producer, Sachiko Kobayashi, he travels to Okinawa to film his ex-girlfriend, radical feminist, Miyuki Takeda. He is not a distant observer, but  a protagonist of his own movie, the experiment. Among the scenes illustrating woman's daily life, her romance with a young girl and also with the American soldier - which fruits with a child "born on a screen" - are scenes where the director gives camera away to Miyuki's lover, cries and reveals himself in front of the viewer.
Hara's film is a masterpiece of transgressive documentary where the artist's responsibility for his work, equals the responsibility for his life. In his search for social changes he starts from his own, private environment.

Besides raw form of his work; overexposed photography, lack of a synchronized sound and applying of a handheld camera, he manages to create a unique, subtle cinematic poem. On a foundation of a documentary recording, Hara builds senses and meanings corresponding with the finest features of Japanese new wave (nuberu bagu), which clearly inspired him. This is how extreme private masterpiece was born.

Irit Rogoff

Kim jest teoretyk?

An author gives the following answer to the question posed in the title: "A theorist is one who has been undone by theory". Her analysis is embedded in Visual Studies on one hand, and in post-colonial and globalization discourses - on the other. The condition we are now in, the visual culture, she explains as the condition of being 'without' - the state of simultaneously knowing and being unable to know. She describes the shift from criticism to critique to criticality, where criticism is understood as an act of judgment addressed to a clear cut object of criticism, the application of values and judgments based on naturalized beliefs and disavowed interests; critique is as examination of those assumptions, values and thought structures that have sustained the inherited truth claims of knowledge. Criticality in her account would be the latest phase of cultural theory and would consist in emphasizing the present, moving from causes to effects, from revealing faults to the possibilities of actualizing the potential. But the most important shift Rogoff describes is the move from the sanctioned subject for theoretical activities towards the constitution of a subject for the work, or substituting the historical specificity of what is being studied with the historical specificity of who is doing the studying. It results in a different way of writing about art, which becomes a practice of writing with an artist's work rather than writing about it. Rogoff also recognizes theoretical possibilities connected to introducing the notion of Creolisation in order to provide more complex and more appropriate modes of cultural engagement.

Konrad Klejsa

Kontestacja i kino - refleksje teoretyczne

Konrad Klejsa' reflection in this text oscillates between the notions of cinema and dissent that are connected to the tern of 60' and 70'. He formulates his doubts concerning the scope of those notions: can we talk about the cinematic dissent, or rather about the cinema of the decade of dissent? The author claims that it is impossible to establish any meaning of these notions without examination and identification of different modes of production and distribution of films created in those times, as well as without taking into account the dynamics of cultural processes. Cinema was only one of media in which the ideas of the "protest culture" were expressed. The films were accompanied by, and often preceded with, actions of the situationists (especially Guy Debord's 1967 manifesto The Society of the Spectacle), as well as by critical discussions focusing on the ideological involvement of cinematic apparatus (connected primarily to French film theory and the strategy of exposing the ideological character of the mainstream cinema). The project of tracing the dissent in particular films must constantly be supplemented with the question of the actual scope of this notion: is it tantamount to the content or rather to the "progressive" form? Standpoints characteristic to the critique of dominant culture implied that the cinema of dissent not only documents the awareness of dissent but embodies it. If the mainstream cinema is not able to represent the dissenting groups and their aims, there is a need for independent media and distribution channels (i.e. funded by sources other than government). The author indicates new strategies of expression that realize theoretical assumptions of the dissent movement, focused around the formula of Brechtian cinema.
The article is an except of the book: Filmowe oblicza kontestacji. Kino Stanów Zjednoczonych i Europy Zachodniej wobec kultury protestu przełomu lat 60. i 70.

Monika Weychert-Waluszko

Naive curator - activism as a form of curatorial practice

The article introduces the idea of activist curatorial strategy called " naive curator". It has been written from the perspective of newly shaped types of institutions, in the context of changes in Polish exhibition movement and increasing professionalization of institutions and curators. One such example is "galeria dla." in Torun and curatorial practice of the author of this article.
     The practice is based on social work: education and attempts of balancing on the verge of exhibitions and "common life" with the receivers of art.  These attempts anticipate atypical forms of communication. The operation is based upon a new form of dialogue and acceptance of mistakes, apparent failures and the category of temporary dissent from generally accepted forms of behavior - not only social, but also connected to exhibition custom. In the spirit of dialogue and tolerance, the quest for forms of communities based on "love" and common life may solve the dilemma based on opposition: unification/alienation. 
     The process of preparation of problem exhibition and curatorial strategies are judged as bastion for authoritarian or even absolute attitude not only towards the artist and work of art, but also gathering attention and receiver's emotions. Among various types of curatorial attitudes: curator/star, curator/theorist, curator/artist and collective curator, the one that adheres to naive attitude is the last one. Negotiation of positions and construction of common, coherent vision thanks to the work of a group of people creates remarkably strong arguments. It makes locating works of art in exhibition's space and contextualization towards other works of art and space far easier. The collective neutralizes "stardom", introduces polilogue at the stage of creation and construction of the exhibition, as well as augurs well for its reception. 
     Naive attitude is about deliberate omission of the context of theoretical shallows, modernist/avant-garde utopias of social change for the benefit of taking specific activist actions. Assuming that aesthetic and philosophical theories that describe artistic world may also be unreliable/mistaken. Are glorifiers of art's alienation right? Or perhaps those who see art as the source of crisis and reflection? Or maybe those who are for the specific actions for the benefit of people? That we do not know yet.

Mirosław Przylipiak

Walka o prawa ludności murzyńskiej w USA w optyce kina bezpośredniego.
Przypadek The Children Were Watching

The author analyzes in detail one of the films of the American direct cinema movement - Richard Leacock's The Children Were Watching, concerning integration of primary schools in New Orleans. Using this particular film as a case study, Przylipiak verifies the basic assumption of film-makers of this movement: the assumption that the cinematic medium has the ability to present reality objectively. The author qualifies their belief that the radical version of mimesis can be controlled by the use of cinematic devices. The problem became especially apparent in the context of their strategy of engaging into social discourse. The act of engagement was to be neutral and based on "pure" observation, free from valuation, using the aesthetics of transparency. Each of those alleged aspects of cinematic record was enabled by technological developments, such as silent camera synchronized with portable sound recorder, high-speed film stock. The central focus of the film analyzed in this text is the issue of racial segregation, the long-lasting problem of American society. The author sets the issue in the American socio-political context, outlining in historical terms the public debate around it, revealing finally the obvious bias of the film-makers of direct cinema movement. Contrary to their declared priority of objectivity, they produced images filtered through propaganda techniques, preceded not only with recording but with intentional use of editing and verbal narration as well.            

Wojciech Szymański

Permanent Revolution of Transgression or Gay Fantasia on the National Themes.

This text is an attempt at describing gay and Marxist coalition in politics, art and humanities. Choosing three artists, Felix Gonzales- Torres ("Untitled. Ross in L. A."), Pedro Almodovar ("All about My Mother") and Tony Kushner ("Angels in America"), author seeks to find and define Marxist and queer basis of thinking of the mentioned artists and their works. The essay is also critique of Polish gay and leftist movements that, according to the author, use trivialized aspects of Marxist thought. The idea of emancipation is possible only in art and thought experiments offered by Torres, Kushner and Almodovar; the great artists whose projects of emancipation based on deep and profound analysis of Marx and, conscious or not, queer thinking are the most beautiful political utopias that the world has ever seen and created.

Łukasz Biskupski


The main goal of  the article is to describe Walt Disney Studios' propaganda activity during World War II. The author puts Disney's production in a wider context of "home front" activity and functioning of the film industry under the coordination of  the Office of War Information and within it, the Bureau of Motion Pictures Affairs. He also outlines the usage of propaganda (and film itself for propaganda purposes) both in the USA and Germany before WW II. The main part of the article concentrates at Disney Studios. It analyzes the impact of the war outbreak (as well as of other factors) on financial condition of the company and Disney's cooperation with Canadian Government and political involvement in South American affairs. A detailed overview and description of several subgenres of cartoons that were produced for the needs of the government and US Army are also given. These were, for example, training films (popularily called "nuts n' bolt" films"), pure entertainment films as well as "motivation" films which were intended to encourage citizens to bury war bonds, pay taxes or save wastes. Apart from films itself the Burbank studio produced a whole range of other propaganda materials: from war insignia to Mickey Mouse gas masks. The article also contains some reflections on Walt Disney's political attitude and preferences. Taking into consideration some of his pre-war films and its political meaning as well as producers contacts with Nazi Germany the author suggests that in the late 30's and early 40's Disney manifested a kind of a fascist inclination.

Dominik Kuryłek

Rysunki z Wietnamu Aleksandra Kobzdeja

Between 1953 and 1954, during the travel to fighting Vietnam, Aleksander Kobzdej made the cycle of the reportage drawings. He accompanied the Viet Mihn forces marching to Dien Bien Phu bastion, the fall of which ended in 1954 the The First Indochina War. In this article, the author compares Kobzdej's drawings with other reportage works in the visual arts and literature of the late 1940s and early 1950s in Poland. He tries to emphasize how the communist authority used them for its own purposes. He concludes that Kobzdej's drawings are not only the example of social realistic art in Poland, but also the evidence of the specific kind of colonialism represented by the Eastern Bloc countries after the World War II.

Daniel Muzyczuk
"Beware of artists bearing their gifts". Krzysztof Wodiczko's mission

The article concerns projects of Krzysztof Wodiczko designed for public space. It shows how in his works he is bringing to light the excluded from the social life and criticizing the rules that govern the existence of individuals within capitalist public space. His art is perceived through a general tendency in conceptual art toward more socially and politically conscious art. Moreover Wodiczko's public works and texts appear to precede Polish critical art as a genre and are seen as one of the most important voices in the postmodern critic of universalisms of the modernity.

Roma Piotrowska
In search of social utopia. Origin of art oriented to social and political problems in art milieu in Gdańsk.

There is a lot of artistic phenomenons which has been passed over in polish academic art history between 1945 and 1989. It seems absolutely necessary to explore them. One of passed over problems is the issue of creating an artistic formation oriented to social and political problems in Gdańsk. This text tries to show the outline of the origin of appearing avangarde art in this milieu in the 80ties Artist who are the topic of this text are heirs of avangarde art which didn't have its own tradition in Gdańsk. Łódź has been the main centre of art in Poland since the 20ties. There where also some artistic formations which where remonstrate against the political system in Poland in the 80ties in Łódź  as well as in Warsaw, Poznań and Wrocław. All those artistic phenomenons are well known and have quite large bibliography in contrast to Gdańsk's. Gdańsk was not important as an art centre till the 80ties because  avangarde art didn`t exist there. Art was developing mostly in nearby Sopot where the Institute of Fine Arts was created after the II World War. Artist from one aesthetical formation (colorism) came to Gdańsk after the war. This new milieu was very monolithic. There were some people from esteemed group KP among them. They were painting well balanced and in warm colours still lives, landscapes and portraits. Finally some artist started to create works which had signs of  political engagement in the 80ties. Polish artistic milieu has been divided because of the activity of the Solidarity. Some artist wanted to create independent art, in opposition to the Church and the government. One of those - where connected with Wyspa Gallery, which was located on the Island of Granaries in Gdańsk.  They were (for the first time in Gdańsk) making art in public space, performances, they where also analyzing language of medias, creating installations and videos. Their art were not openly against the political system, but a lot of their works started to be like this because of specific political atmosphere of that times.  Artist connected with Wyspa (Grzegorz Klaman - the leader, Kazimierz Kowalczyk, Jacek Staniszewski, Robert Rumas, Robert Kaja, Piotr Wyrzykowski, Eugeniusz Szczudło, Jarosław Bartołowicz, Marek Rogulski , Jarosław Fliciński) and TOTART had a great influence on artist from Gdańsk in the 90ties, which still isn't explored. Some of them (Grzegorz Klaman, Robert Rumas)  became one of the most important representatives of so called "critical art" which had its renaissance in Poland in the 90ties.

Jonathan L. Owen

Współczesny surrealizm czeski i odnowa języka: wczesne filmy Jana Švankmajera

Sebastian Jakub Konefał

Między feminizmem a mizoginią: dystopijne ideologie społeczeństwa przyszłości
w kinowej oraz literackiej science fiction po roku 1968

After the experience of American counter-culture revolution Anglo-Saxon science fiction had to face the process of gradual revaluation and deconstruction of its conventional motives. One of  such stereotypical clichés was the intemperate misogynic characteristic of s-f plots which, under the cover of futuristic space technologies and distant cosmic worlds, often described adventurous "male" narratives. Female writers such as Ursula Le Guin, Joanna Russ and Alice Bradley Sheldon started  deconstructing the "male gaze" of hard science fiction using the plots connected with futuristic, utopian worlds,  based on matriarchy or fully devoid of male heroes. Female s-f, at the beginning often considered as controversial and aggressive, not only changed popular literary conventions but also made an impact on the mainstream cinema productions. Unfortunately, film industry reacted to this new trend mainly by boosting misogynic aspects of s-f cinematic plots. Such films as Bryan Forbes' "Stepford Wives" (1975) or L. Q. Jones' "A Boy and his Dog" (1975) present the female protagonist as the objects of desire for the male audience. This tendency reached the highest popularity in the s-f Hollywood cinema of 1980's and early 1990's. One the other hand, some of the movie productions also indicted a positive feedback to feminism. One of the first movies that efficiently reinterpreted some misogynic clichés connected with the images of female s-f characters was Ridley Scotts' "Blade Runner" (1982/1992). Gradually Scott's masterpiece inspired other directors: Frank Oz's re-make of "Stepford Wives"(2004) wittily argues with the gender stereotypes of modern s-f, other movies, such as Andrew Niccol's "Gattaca"(1997)  Michael Winterbottom's "Code 46"(2003) and Alfonso Cuaron's "Children of Man"(2006), indicate the negative sides of future patriarchal society where female protagonists have no equal rights as man. Another example of female critique of the modern capitalist societies is the motif of cloning. Unfortunately, cloning (altogether with other pro-feminist motives), in the beginning used by counterculture authors as the metaphorical indication of the inhuman aspects of the "technological capitalism", very soon became another cliché used without any deconstructing power by the main cinema. This way the omniscient power of mass culture absorbed the revolting ideas of female s-f.    

Janusz Stachowiak
Z Hanoi do Hollywood, czyli ewolucja filmu antywojennego z Wietnamem w tle

This article is an attempt to show how did the American anti-war movies evolved during and after the Vietnam conflict. It follows and presents chronologically (from 1967 till present times) various types of  Vietnam related movies showing different approaches and grapples with that problem. Most of all it exposes Hollywood's engagement in social matters and each periods focal point of that problem.  It shows that unlike during the II WW, the Vietnam war movies focused not on the war itself, but on the mark that it leaves on a man's life, it didn't matter much if it was American or Vietnamese or if the effect was either physical or psychical nature. Reading the text also gives us a point of view on the obstacles that the movie creators had to face during and after the production phase. This entry also tries to exhibit the effect of anti-war movies on American film industry in general. Apology regarding the Native Americans in western genre and the completely new esthetics (brutalization is the right word) of death scenes are just few examples to be mentioned.

Łukasz Kobylarz

"Rambo!Your Country Needs You!", czyli kino w służbie państwa

The purpose of the following essay is to examine the methods implementented by American cinematography in dealing with external threats to the United States' security. By focusing on the image of the hero and the enemy, this analysis presents their character archetypes and displays their associated qualities, both negative and positive. Attention is also given to the means by which filmakers had stirred national values, partriotic sentiment, and the will to fight in their films' audience. In the final years of the Cold War, the Reagan administration had played a prominent role in the creation of the "action hero", embodied by actors such as Sylvester Stallone, Chuck Norris, and Clint Eastwood. These 80's films make up the reaganomatography genre also known as the cinema of new patriotism. They were created along the Republican Party's political guidlines and President Reagan's direct initiative. These ideological guidelines confronted the attitude of defeat deriving from counter-culture while promoting the containment of Communist influence and a tough stance in U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union. In the face of a Communist threat, they showed Amercan society that the danger is real but at the same time provided a feeling of security which emphasized that the U.S. can - and will - overcome its enemies. Understanding the historical context and message of these films is essential to fullycomprehend their social implications and shared characteristics.
Today, the ideologically-filled factors of reaganomatography have no contemporary counterpart while a crisis in masculanity on the silver screen has undermined the hero character. Nevertheless, their continuation can be seen in telelvision shows, primary "24" and its lead character Counter Terrorist Unit agent Jack Bauer. For what reasons has this subject been neglected by today's cinema and what is the ideological role of television in confronting the dangers of terrorism and reassuring American society that as in the Cold War, the "Home of the Brave" will prevail once again?

Paweł Sitkiewicz

Wychowywać czy pouczać? Perswazja i propaganda w polskim animowanym filmie dla dzieci

Marcin Adamczak

Art Strategies in Polish Cinema after 1989: the outline of the field of artistic production  

The article is an attempt to apply Pierre Bourdieu's sociology of art to cinema reality, particularly to deploy the category of "strategy" (which is understood as a "opportunity existing in the particular field") and the theory of "the field of artistic production". It deals with four contemporary Polish film-makers' strategies. The author distinguished the Baron strategy, the Auteur strategy, the Professional strategy and the Partisan strategy. These are perceived, according to Pierre Boudieu's approach, as a possibilities opened in field of artistic production and determined by relation of forces within a field and "habituses" of individual players. In this way these strategies are determined by film-maker's position within the field (for example old/young, consecrated/non-consecrated). They are also shaped by outside (mainly market) forces. The Baron strategy is available for older directors with high-level of artistic consecration and it is in some ways a combination of Professional and Auteur Strategy, similar to European "Quality Cinema" which lead to national historical blockbusters. The representatives of Auteur strategy often refer to past modernist cinema and "auteur model" form the 60'. They neglect the importance of wide audience and box-office success or - in wider perspective - the industrial and market dimension of cinema. Cinema is perceived as art, autonomous "art for art's sake", independent especially from market reality. The Professional strategy is at the antipodes of the former one. "Professionals" make concessions for the public and their works are created (or prepared) for the pre-existing market, use proven genre formulas and try to response to the wide public tastes and expectations in order to get massive admissions. Box-office success is a shield for critics' and "elitist" public disregard." The Partisan strategy can be found in productions commonly known as "off-cinema".

Anna Miller

A cinematic trace of Central European identity.
Remarks on Márta Mészaros' A Temetetlen halott

In her essay the author examines A Temetetlen halott by Márta Mészaros - a Hungarian director and screenwriter usually associated with feminist cinema. Due to the use of the quasi-documentary narrative strategy, A Temetetlen halott seems to fit the contemporary paradigm of telling (about) history. Produced in 2004, the film is a reconstruction of the last two years in the life of Imre Nagy, the legendary prime minister of the revolutionary Hungarian government in 1956, thus creating a perfect opportunity for the investigation of the so called Central European identity. A Temetetlen halott - aPolish-Slovak-Hungarian co-production - points to the close historical bonds between Poland and Hungary; the protest in Budapest was after all a sign of support for the changes taking place in Poland at that time (therefore one has to keep in mind that the revolt in Poznan in 1956 creates the historical context for these events). Built upon biographical experiences of real witnesses of the 1956 October revolution, the film shows the urgent need for an effort to keep the past alive, as it forms the basis of  the collective identity.

Anna Łazar

Wokół Choppersów Anny Okrasko

Emilia Brzozowska

Potoczny odbiór sztuki krytycznej w Polsce. Sztuka pretekstem
do eksploracji społecznych wartości, norm, stereotypów,
doświadczenia życiowego

Agnieszka Sosnowska

To grasp taste by words - a collusion of the cooks

A kitchen and a pure process of cooking is used as the ground for developing an analogy between the way in which we consume dishes and in which we become consumers of selected pictures. The criterion which allows the author to put together those two orders, is the taste understood as the fact or condition of liking or preferring something determined by the subjective pleasure that one takes from it. As it is said, in the matter of taste there is no discussion. It is difficult to find criteria which everyone would accept. Immanuel Kant already noticed the mysteriousness of this term and the difficulty to explain its meaniang. He thought that aesthetic judgments can be both subjective and universal. The article tries to define taste in the negative way - through things which we don't want to look at, which we avoid in creating representations in public space - and connect it with the structure of our cognition.

Joanna Szymajda

Kamera i wideo jako narzędzia politycznego dyskursu
w tańcu współczesnym

The paper introduces the question of video and camera application to the political discourse of contemporary dance. The first reflection regards the general topic of the political potential of contemporary dance and the relation between the type of political regime and status of the dance as art (with an accent on the case of the German Ausdrucktanz). Afterwards, the American postmodernist choreographers's works are recalled as an example of the pioneer employment of the camera in the political discourse of dance. In that context Merce Cunningham's ideas of fortuity and democratization of the theatrical representative space by using both computer and camera, emerge.
The second part of this paper is the study of recent performances of Anna Teresa de Keersmeaker (Once, 2002) and Robyn Orlin ( L'Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato, 2007). De Keersemeaker is a Belgian choreographer, pedagogue of Rosas Company and the founder of P.A.R.T.S. - the school of contemporary dance in Brussels. In Once, her last solo performance, she examines the possibility of the protest in our contemporary society by recalling the political and social atmosphere of sixties in United States. She uses for that a kind of memory games with Joan Baez's and Bob Dylan's songs as well as with the D.W. Griffith's film The birth of the nation which is considered to be an affirmation of the Ku-Klux-Klan racists practices and ideas.  
The South-African artist with a very multicultural background, Robyn Orlin, is known as one of the most political contemporary choreographers. In her productions she dares to touch such a fragile question as AIDS, post-colonialism or African poverty. Very often she uses the cameras as stage objects. L'Allegro.. to Handel's music is her last performance ordered by Opera Garnier Paris. This performance mixes the various genres, such as dance, opera, music and video. Simultaneously with a scenic action the film made especially for this performance is projected on the enormous screen up over the stage. The images were taken in the different regions of South Africa and the video-film is inter-acting with dancers's bodies performing on the stage owing to bring into play the small cameras capturing directly the dancing bodies. Similarly to many of her performances, Orlin introduces here an ironic meta-reflection on the classical ballet as one of the symbols of colonialism.
In the context of eurocentrism and post-colonialism, the example of  Le Sacre du Printemps (2004) of Company Heddy Maalem is introduced, and next the video-production of Katarzyna Kozyra deriving from the same source of inspiration and treating the question of the author's power on the performer's body.
The aim of this modest panorama, accented in conclusion, is to bring to light the idea of dance as political by nature.